Best Biodegradable Polymers for food Package

In today’s environmentally conscious world, the quest for sustainable packaging solutions has never been more critical. Biodegradable polymers have emerged as a promising alternative to traditional plastic packaging, especially in the context of food packaging.

In this article, we will explore the best biodegradable polymers for food packaging, their advantages, properties, and their role in addressing the environmental challenges.

Table of Contents

Consideration for Evaluating Biodegradable Polymers for food package

When evaluating biodegradable polymers for food packaging, several key criteria should be considered to ensure they meet the required performance, safety, and environmental standards. Here are the important factors to assess:

Decomposition Rate

Decomposition rate refers to how quickly the biodegradable polymer breaks down into natural substances when exposed to environmental conditions. Faster decomposition can be preferable for reducing waste and environmental impact. However, it should align with the expected shelf life of the packaged food.

Mechanical Strength

Mechanical strength is crucial to ensure the packaging can withstand handling, transportation, and storage without tearing, puncturing, or leaking. The material should maintain its structural integrity to protect the enclosed food.

Barrier Properties

Barrier properties involve the ability of the biodegradable polymer to create a protective barrier against external factors, such as moisture, oxygen, and light. An effective food package should keep the food fresh and safe by preventing spoilage and contamination.


The cost of the biodegradable polymer is a significant factor in the decision-making process. The material should be economically viable for food packaging applications, considering factors such as production costs, availability, and market competitiveness.

Food Safety

Food safety is paramount. The biodegradable polymer must be non-toxic and non-reactive with the packaged food. It should not release harmful substances or alter the taste, odor, or nutritional properties of the food. Regulatory compliance and certifications may also be essential to ensure food safety.

Compatibility with Food Types

Different foods have unique packaging requirements. Evaluate whether the biodegradable polymer is suitable for a wide range of food types, including both dry and perishable goods.

Best Biodegradable Polymers for food Package

There have many types of material which can used for food package, here is the commonly used type.

PLA (Polylactic Acid) Polymer

PLA pellets

Polylactic Acid, or PLA, is a remarkable biomaterial that has gained significant attention for its unique properties. These characteristics make PLA a valuable player in various industries, particularly in the realm of sustainable materials.

PLA’s sustainability profile has made it an attractive option for food packaging. The food industry is increasingly under pressure to reduce its environmental footprint, and PLA offers several benefits in this context:

  • Reduced Carbon Footprint: PLA production generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional plastics. Its renewable feedstocks contribute to a lower carbon footprint, which aligns with the push for sustainable practices in food packaging.
  • Biodegradable Packaging: PLA-based packaging is compostable, which means it can be disposed of along with organic waste in composting facilities. This not only reduces landfill waste but also contributes to soil enrichment.
  • Barrier Properties: PLA can be modified to improve its barrier properties, making it suitable for perishable food items. While it may not match the performance of some traditional plastics, ongoing research and development aim to enhance PLA’s barrier capabilities.

PGA(polyglycolide) Polymer

Polyglycolide pellets

Polyglycolide (PGA) polymers are a class of synthetic polymers known for their remarkable characteristics, which make them versatile and environmentally friendly.

The versatile nature of PGA polymers makes them well-suited for a range of applications, including food packaging. Here’s how PGA can be used in food packaging:

  • Biodegradable Food Packaging: PGA can be employed to create biodegradable food packaging materials, including films, trays, and containers. These items break down naturally over time, reducing the environmental impact of conventional plastic packaging.
  • Barrier Properties: PGA films can be engineered to have excellent barrier properties, protecting food products from moisture, oxygen, and other external factors. This helps extend the shelf life of perishable goods.
  • Customization: PGA’s compatibility with various processing methods allows for the production of customized packaging designs and shapes to meet specific food packaging needs.
  • Safety: PGA is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for food contact applications, ensuring that it is suitable for direct contact with food.

PCL (Polycaprolactone) Polymer

Polycaprolactone (PCL) polymers are a class of synthetic polymers known for their unique characteristics. These properties make them versatile and highly suitable for various applications. Here’s how PCL can be used in food packaging:

  • Biodegradable Food Packaging: PCL can be used to create biodegradable food packaging materials, such as films, trays, and containers. These items can help reduce the environmental impact of traditional plastic packaging by breaking down naturally over time.
  • Freshness and Barrier Properties: PCL films can be engineered to have excellent barrier properties, protecting food products from moisture, oxygen, and light. This helps extend the shelf life of perishable goods.
  • Customized Shapes: The low melting point of PCL allows for easy thermoforming and molding, enabling the production of customized packaging designs and shapes to meet specific food packaging requirements.
  • Compatibility with Food: PCL is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for contact with food, making it suitable for direct food contact applications.

PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoates) Polymer

Polyhydroxyalkanoates, commonly known as PHA, are a class of biodegradable polymers that owe their existence to the natural world. These remarkable polymers are produced by various microorganisms as a means of storing carbon and energy. PHAs serve as intracellular carbon reserves, allowing microbes to thrive in diverse environments.

The versatility of PHAs makes them a valuable asset in the world of packaging materials. Their natural origin, combined with their biodegradability and renewable source, opens up a multitude of promising applications:

  • Sustainable Packaging: PHA polymers are ideal for producing eco-friendly packaging materials. They can be used to create biodegradable films, bags, and containers that reduce environmental impact. As consumers and industries alike seek sustainable alternatives, PHAs have emerged as a viable solution.
  • Agricultural Films: PHA-based films are well-suited for agricultural applications. They can be used as mulch films, ensuring soil health and reducing plastic waste in farming. These films degrade naturally, eliminating the need for labor-intensive removal.
  • Biodegradable Plastics: PHAs can be used to manufacture various plastic products, from cutlery to disposable utensils. These items break down in natural environments, reducing the burden of plastic pollution on land and in oceans.

PBAT (Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate) Polymer

Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT) is a remarkable polymer that combines strength with biodegradability, making it an attractive choice in the pursuit of sustainable materials. This unique blend of properties makes PBAT a versatile option in various industries.

One of the prominent applications of PBAT is in the production of compostable packaging. The biodegradability of PBAT makes it an eco-friendly alternative to traditional plastics. When PBAT-based packaging reaches the end of its life cycle and is disposed of in composting facilities, it breaks down into harmless organic compounds through microbial activity.

Compostable PBAT packaging has gained popularity as consumers and businesses alike seek sustainable alternatives to reduce plastic waste. It not only serves as a practical solution for single-use items but also aligns with global efforts to reduce plastic pollution and minimize environmental impact.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Are biodegradable polymers as durable as traditional plastics for food packaging?

Biodegradable polymers can offer comparable durability for many food packaging applications. However, their suitability depends on the specific use case and material choice.

What is the cost difference between biodegradable and traditional plastic packaging?

Biodegradable packaging materials can be more expensive to produce, which may impact their cost for businesses. However, economies of scale and innovation are gradually reducing this price gap.

Can biodegradable polymers be recycled like traditional plastics?

Biodegradable polymers have limited recycling infrastructure compared to traditional plastics. While some can be recycled, composting or controlled disposal is often the preferred end-of-life option.


biodegradable polymers represent a promising solution to the environmental challenges posed by traditional plastic packaging. Their biodegradability, reduced environmental impact, and potential for innovation make them a key player in the future of food packaging.

For the list of the biodegradable polymer material, each has their benefits and disadvantages. You can choose the suitable type due to your budget, material properties for the project and so on.